My doctoral dissertation supervised by Professor Życzkowski
1. Introductory remarks
In 2007, I published in the journal of the Cracow University of Technology (CUT) Nasza Politechnika (Our Polytechnics) memories, written in Polish, of Professor Życzkowski. They were entitled “Master my encounters with Professor Życzkowski”. I used the word “Master”, as I had the chance to meet the greatest scientist that had hitherto worked at the CUT, who had the knowledge and wisdom of a true teacher and man. I also used the word “encounters” in the sense of permanent contacts based on the master’s will to share his knowledge with a pupil that created a perspective of possible friendship. In addition, indeed, that is what happened, as the encounters continued since the beginning of work on my doctoral dissertation until the Master’s departure. At the end, I highlighted the title “Professor” (by a capital letter!). Not only because he had all the titles and academic degrees that could be had, but also because of his ethos of service to science, to the truth and to people.
I accepted with joy the invitation to write my memories related to the period of work on the doctoral dissertation in the charge and then under the supervision of Professor Życzkowski. As for all young academic teachers, it was a very important stage of my life. I indicated that the stage lasted for about eight years, namely in the period 1959-1967. That time covered my preparations to undertake the work of a scientist, my research, writing and defending my doctoral dissertation. I also included the period of two years devoted to the publication of the research results related to the dissertation and to publishing articles clearly inspired with the subject matter of the dissertation.
In this text, I omit a considerable part of details presented elsewhere. I assumed a slightly more “scientific” style and briefly discussed the scope of realized works and published articles. In the final section, I also mention the Professor’s manual and two monographic titles that inspired my most important works. To provide a background of our research encounters, I also write personal experiences, interwoven with other forms of my activities that were always approved of by the Professor, although occasionally with justified reservations.
I assumed a manner of writing that is far from the precision that was obligatory for a pupil in front of the Master. Since the very beginning of our encounters, I always felt his great kindness that supported me in overcoming difficulties and encouraged me to work as well as I could. Therefore, in the description of selected events, I do not omit anecdotal elements, as they were well received by readers of my memories.
2. Beginning of apprenticeship to Master Życzkowski
The fascination with the young doctor Życzkowski conducting tutorials on the theory of elasticity and plasticity in the winter semester in academic year 1955/56 affected me as it did the majority of my colleagues at the specialization of Building Structures at the CUT Faculty of Building Engineering. Against the background of well-prepared and presented lectures of professor Janusz Walczak, the tutorials stood out due to brilliance, fast pace of presentation and apparent scientific competence of the young lecturer.
After about two years, I returned to CUT as an assistant lecturer at the Department of Structural Analysis and Strength of Materials (in what follows a shortened acronym DSM is applied). Janusz Orkisz, a colleague from the same year of the university course, encouraged me to participate in the already famous, permanent Seminar, conducted by the doctor Michał Życzkowski, who was soon to become an associate professor.
At the beginning of the summer semester in academic year 1959/60, the doctor announced the presentation of proposed subjects of doctoral dissertations. He wrote several subjects on the blackboard. Six, if I remember correctly. Janusz Orkisz had already started to work on an excellent subject focusing on the application of equivalent multi-point cross-sections to the analysis of elastic-plastic beams. From the list, I selected one that on engineering, namely: “analysis of beams with constrained shiftability of supports”. It was probably due to Janusz’s backing that I was included as the fourth person on the list of doctoral students supervised by Michał Życzkowski (in short, I became “Number 4”, after 1. Janusz Orkisz, 2. Miłosz Wnuk, 3. Dzidka Kordas).
Therefore, I started to be apprenticed to Master Życzkowski, as I soon learned to call him. Very quickly, I got used to his style of work. The first test was to consist in the preparation of a paper for the Seminar, focused on the theoretical basis and application of elliptic integrals in the solid mechanics. My mathematical skills were not equal to the level reached by many participants of the Seminar, but I had full trust in the Master. He indicated the literature in Polish and Russian I was expected to read and he left me "in the middle of deep sea”! No terms of meetings were agreed, as I was allowed to ask questions and talk about difficulties at any moment of the Doctor’s free time. I might even call him almost at any time. Soon, after my seminar lecture, a weight was taken off my mind, so that I could finally start to work on the selected subject!
Yet, there was one more serious obstacle, namely my zero-level knowledge of English. It turned out to be indispensable, although my proficiency in Russian proved to be very helpful. As far as my conviction that I knew Polish well, it was dispelled a bit later by professor Zbigniew Kączkowski – see Section 4 below.
It turned out that the seminar subject was strictly connected with a part of the future doctoral dissertation. At the beginning, I was supposed to generalize the solutions presented in the doctoral dissertation of my Tutor, focused on finite deflections and stability of beams with inextensible axis. Apart from axis instretchability, I introduced the Lagrangian independent variable, implemented by professor Jacek Szarski from the Jagiellonian University to derive and analyse the string equation.
Thus, at the very beginning, I actually worked together with my future supervisor. My standard was constituted by his claret-coloured notebook, containing derivations and proofs written with green ink in his neat handwriting. To my question concerning potential errors in the notebook, he answered: “Why! I know what I am trying to derive. Moreover, I follow the principle of checking derivations and calculations twice!”. It was at that time that I started to understand the beauty one can disclose in writing formulas, clear drawings and in deducing the final conclusions.
Simultaneously, I was obliged to review the indicated journals first, and then the additional journals and articles resulting from that and to write comments down in a notebook (after my Master, I use only blank paper, not lined or squared). Comments were recommended to be written in a specific order: detailed bibliographic data with library numbers, followed by an abstract and, possibly, final conclusions. If a read title could be useful for my dissertation, I wrote wise comments like “nothing interesting”, “an interesting algorithm”, “the author must have made a mistake – ask MŻ”, “this has already been shown by Timoshenko!”.
Some time later, I was introduced to the following procedure: understand a phenomenon or basic algorithm scheme, formulate a mathematical model and a method of analysis. The next level of understanding consisted in asking the question: if the work “fits” my dissertation, then can I formulate a simple example or solve the problem with a method I know? Such procedure turned out to be creative. All the more so, that my comments could be immediately verified by the unfailing Tutor Życzkowski. During short meetings, he indicated inconsistencies of my models, excessively complicated proofs or the need to for calculations to be repeated.
As it is in life, however, nothing went smoothly! I already described elsewhere the first frictions against the person of my tutor. I decided, without the approval of professor Tadeusz Kozłowski, the head of DSM, to work under the supervision of the scientist (from another faculty!) of my choice. Two years passed, before professor Kozłowski gave his consent for the supervision on the part of Associate Professor Życzkowski. However, I gathered some points in DSW by attending professor Kozłowski’s semester-long lecture on the theory of elasticity and the lectures (lasting two semesters) on structural mechanics delivered by doctor (then associate professor) Roman Ciesielski. In the beginning, it was quite a burden for me, as I also had to devote a lot of time to the preparation of tutorials and other classes, especially when I delivered a subject for the first time.
I naturally combined my research with the obligations of a designer of steel structures, as I worked part time at the Cracow Office of Industrial Construction Design at the address: Wielopole 11 (under the supervision of a great engineer, M.Sc. Zbigniew Faix-Dąbrowski). All this was accompanied by my weekend work in a 3-person company of my father, Włodzimierz Waszczyszyn, M.Sc. Eng. Architect. The fourth, most valued permanent job was connected with my fiancée, Stefania Niusia Ciubówna, an art history student at the Jagiellonian University. However, it was relatively easy, because she lived at the time at the address Wielopole 7, i.e. right next door to my Design Office!
However, let’s return to the heart of the matter! At that time, my doctor Życzkowski was introducing the small parameter method and the generalized power series (with fractional powers). It was a method implemented by many of his doctoral student. Therefore, I had to yield to the local fashion for, after completing my work on the generalization of the Master’s solutions. I tried to analyse the solutions by means of power series, which I presented in an article. I finished the laborious year 1960 with the preparation of two articles for print. The “commissioning” of my work took place in spring 1961, when I brought manuscripts of the articles to the meeting with Dr. Życzkowski, already an associate professor. On the title pages, I wrote the names of two authors in the following order: M. Życzkowski, Z. Waszczyszyn. Having looked through the manuscripts, my Master changed the order of the authors in the first article and ordered the name Życzkowski to be removed from the other one, see papers 1. Z. Waszczyszyn and M. Życzkowski, Archives of Mechanics, Vol. 14, 1962, 2. Z. Waszczyszyn, Rozprawy Inzynierskie (Engineering Transactions), Vol. 10, 1962.
I could not avoid the interlacing and overlapping of my various experiences. And so, my first paper at the Scientific Conference of ZMOC (Zakład Mechaniki Ośrodka Ciągłego – Continuum Mechanics Division) at the ITFR PAS (Institute of Fundamental Technological Rsearch of the Polish Academy of Sciences) was delivered in Olsztyn in August 1961. I had to shorten my stay at the Conference, because it took place just after my civil marriage to Niusia and just before our church marriage. The very difficult year 1961, I closed with an exam to be a chartered engineer. I also stopped working at the Cracow Office of Industrial Construction Design in Wielopole Street.
3. Two difficult years
The next period of my work under the supervision of Master Życzkowski approximately overlapped with four semesters of the academic years 1961/63. After the vacations in 1961, he drew my attention to the internal collocation method. I quickly combined this method with the l’Hermite boundary approximation. Such an approach opened a door to the generalization of models of beams with constrained shiftability of supports and allowed me to create efficient algorithms for an adequate analysis.
In April 1962, I participated in a great training course on the theory of plasticity in Jabłonna. Professor Sawczuk was the main organizer, with whom I shared my lot later on. Extended materials prepared for this course were published in Polish as the book Theory of Plasticity, W. Olszak, P. Perzyna and A. Sawczuk (Eds), PWN, Warsaw, 1965. Till now this book is the basic Polish monograph on the theory of plasticity. Chapter IX of the monograph focused on elastic and plastic torsion of bars was written by professor Życzkowski. This chapter was based, among others, on early works of the Professor and his collaborators, focused on combining loads applied to prismatic bars with circular and non-circular cross-sections (M. Życzkowski, 1954; S. Piechnik and M. Życzkowski, 1962; M. Wnuk, 1962).
In April 1962, professor Kozłowski gave his consent for the (still) doctor (soon to become a professor) Życzkowski to supervise my doctoral dissertation. The works on the dissertation – now officially recognized – proceeded quickly and efficiently. In that year, I published two more original articles in Czasopismo Techniczne (Technical Journal) and Archiwum Inżynierii Lądowej (Archives of Civil Engineering), proceeded with a paper delivered at the ZMOC Conference in Krynica.
On the Professor’s request, kindly supported by professor Kozłowski, I was granted a yearly doctoral sabbatical and in the summer semester of the academic year 1962/63, I was granted a leave to complete and write my dissertation. It was supposed to be defended in autumn 1963.
Obviously, it was impossible to separate the work on the dissertation from personal issues. In November 1962, our son Jaromir was born, which spurred the works on our house in the Kraków-Prądnik Czerwony District in Żmujdzka Street. Taking advantage of the leave, I started to study physics at the Jagiellonian University. After getting almost automatically the credits for the first year, I also completed the winter semester 1962/63. However, it turned out impossible to continue the additional studies, primarily due to family issues, but also because of time-consuming laboratory classes.
By the end of 1962, I devoted a lot of effort to the generalization of the results published together with the supervisor in an article on elastic material. The article focused on the analysis of finite elastic and plastic deflections of beams was sent for publishing in a special volume of Czasopismo Techniczne (Technical Journal), prepared to be issued on the 600th anniversary of the Jagiellonian University. Unfortunately, due to delays in printing, the article was not published until 1965. However, an extensive summary (12 pages) in English appeared much earlier, in 1963. It was recommended by professor Życzkowski to a PAS member, professor Wacław Olszak, to be presented in the journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences PAS Bulletin, Technical Sciences series. And thus, the summary was published two years before the publication of the original article!
Joined publication of an article in Polish and its summary in English in the PAS Bulletin was aimed at facilitating international exchange and it was very useful, for instance, during research conferences, as it facilitated discussions on our results. This procedure applied primarily to all the works considered by the Professor to be outstanding, i.e. worth recommending for print in the PAS Bulletin.
Let us return, however, to the main current of my scientific research. In view of the advancement in dissertation writing and of the giving up the studies at the Jagiellonian University, it seemed to me I had a lot of free time. I decided to make „Eine kleine Űberraschung” to my supervisor (that’s how I called a “small surprise” due to the master’s proficiency in German). Professor Kozłowski was glad to give his consent to the performance of experiments for my dissertation at the DSM Laboratory. In his opinion, I was “converted” and I returned as a “prodigal son” to the true engineering mechanics. I was to be aided by a technician, Marian Marchewka, and I received invaluable support of the Laboratory manager, Mieczysław Pieronek, M.Sc., Eng. The works in a small room in the basement of the main building of CUT immediately gathered momentum. The period of our work turned out to be well selected, as the experiments of Romuald Świtka, M.Sc., Eng., from Poznań, a doctoral student of professor Kozłowski, were just about to be finished.
After approximately a month work, I decided to tell my Master about the new part of my dissertation. This delay was due to the information received from the CUT Faculty of Mechanical Engineering that “Professor Życzkowski is a true theoretician and he does not dabble with experiments”. To my cheerful news, the Professor turned pale and declared in a rather weak voice: “Why, but your doctoral dissertation has already been completed!”. Only after several days, I was able to bring him to the laboratory basement and show him the stand with a provisionally fixed duralumin beam model and several displacement-measuring gauges. His stance impressed me very much! He silently listened to my explanations and, at the end, he turned my attention to the need to increase the number of measurement points.
After four months, I finished the experiments and processing of the results. I included their comparison with the theoretical predictions in the dissertation as an additional chapter. Experimental verification qualitatively confirmed to a large extent my theoretical results, but the accuracy of measurements could be considered as just barely sufficient.
In June 1963, the Supervisor informed the Council of the CUT Faculty of Civil Engineering that my dissertation “Analysis of bending beams with constrained shiftability of supports” had been finished and the manuscript should be ready at the beginning of September. Thanks to this, dates of exams were established and reviewers were selected and I had time to write short reports on timely completion of tasks required in applications for a grant and a leave.
The following persons were selected to review my dissertation: professor Jacek Szarski (Jagiellonian University), professor Zbigniew Kączkowski (Warsaw University of Technology) and professor Tadeusz Kozłowski (Cracow University of Technology). The specialization exam focused on the principles of the theory of elasticity and plasticity. The exam on political economy was to be conducted by professor Wiktor Boniecki (Cracow University of Economics).
4. Final preparations and defence of the dissertation
The preparation of the manuscript took a lot of time. The text was typewritten by Mrs. Wiesia Rychta, a new secretary at the DSM. Formulae, figures and charts, I did myself manually. My experience from the design office came in handy. Two ozalid copies of the dissertation were prepared for review.
I combined the work on the manuscript with preparations for and taking exams. I took the specialization exam in the presence of the Supervisor. Unfortunately, I do not remember much of the exam. It must have been quite successful, because I do not remember the Master to have any reservations to my answers.
Yet, I still have memories from the exam conducted by professor Boniecki, whom I had remembered well from his vivid lectures I had attended as a third year student at the Polytechnic Faculties of the Mining and Metallurgy University of Cracow. The discussion of the question concerning the dependence of Third World countries on the capitalist economy of the Western World was short and to the point. A true discussion developed around a thin book entitled Parkinson’s Laws that I had been given to read. After my remark that this was a new law of nature that “one can only overcome”, the examiner and members of the examination board livened up so much that I was hardly able to add anything else. My account of this exam aroused professor Życzkowski’s interest. He was very sorry to have been unable to participate in the exam. Naturally, he took the Parkinson's book from me to read it in free time.
At the beginning of the academic year 1963/64, professor Ciesielski’s group left the DSM to establish the Department of Structural Dynamics at the CUT Faculty of Hydro-Engineering. The event was accompanied by various organizational changes that slightly delayed the term of my dissertation defence. Positive reviews were finally received and the defence could take place on April 3rd, 1964.
As always, attention was focused on the reviews. Professor Szarski briefly summarized the dissertation and stated only that the author was able to select well the methods of analysing the problems under discussion and that solved them successfully. Professor Kozłowski wrote that the work is a research contribution, but it turned out for the author in the modification of approximate analysis methods. He obviously liked the chapter on laboratory experiments, in spite of small accuracy of measurements.
The most discerning review was provided by professor Kączkowski, who assessed equally the merits and the flaws of the dissertation. I was surprised to learn that I had analysed the 3rd type of stability loss, i.e. the passage of a beam from the flexural state to the state of axial tension. The most memorable, however, were professor Kączkowski’s remarks on my rather light-hearted use of Polish. Apart from standard remarks on the need to differentiate between the terms “magnitude” and “value” (Polish words “wielkość vs. “wartość”), “number” and “amount” (Polish “liczba” vs. “ilość”), the professor also quoted other “inventions”, for instance: “You cannot solve a beam. You can solve a sugar cube!”. After that, my Supervisor took the trouble to find interchangeable uses of terms “number” and “amount” in books written by famous mathematicians.
Already after the defence, it turned out that several of my works had been reviewed by the very editor-in-chief of the Archiwum Inżynierii Lądowej (Archives of Civil Engineering) journal, namely professor Kączkowski. After one of the reviews, rich in brilliant and caustic comments, that contained a note “See Szober, Słownik poprawnej polszczyzny (Dictionary of Correct Polish) page such and such”, I bought the book and told professor Kączkowski during a conference meeting that I had already started to use Szober. Thus, I gained recognition of my teacher, and later a friend, a great Polish scientist and specialist in structural mechanics. Many years later, he admitted that an improvement in my use of Polish was noticeable.
5. After defence of the dissertation
I defended my dissertation with honours, which brought me the 3rd Degree Award of the Minister of Higher Education in 1965. At that time, most probably all awarded doctoral dissertations with honours were granted this award. Therefore, I had more satisfaction earlier, in 1964, when I was granted the 3rd award in the Polish competition of experimental works in mechanics, organized by the Polish Association of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics. The award was about 1.5 times higher than the salary of a lecturer at the DSM I was receiving at the time.
I started my career as “Number 4” on the list of Professor Życzkowski and I maintained that position in his „production” process, following the model “a doctor every year” (1. J. Orkisz, 1961, 2. M. Wnuk, 1962, 3. D. Kordas, 1963, 4. Z. Waszczyszyn, 1964). The defence was crowned during a post-seminar “tea meeting” by putting up my enlarged photograph in a brown frame (later on in a golden frame reserved for post-doctoral dissertations) in the line of former doctoral students on the wall behind the Master's desk at the Department of Technical Mechanics of the CUT Faculty of Mechanical Engineering.
After a short rest, I started the “period of putting things in order”, devoted to publishing expanded results obtained during the research described in the doctoral dissertation. I prepared three articles which were published in the scientific journals Rozprawy Inżynierskie (Engineering Transactions), Mechanika Teoretyczna i Stosowana (Theoretical and Applied Mechanics) and Acta Mechanica as well as three extended abstracts in the PAS Bulletin. Then I followed the custom introduced by the Professor that summaries or papers presented at conferences and related to an original article do not get a new number, but just letters a), b), etc. This approach was well received by professor Z. Kączkowski, the stern editor-in-chief of Achiwum Inzynierii Lądowej.
The article providing a description and results of laboratory experiments was granted not only the award of the Polish Association of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, but its English version in PAS Bulletin was also quoted by A.N. Sherbourne from Canada.
However, I would count the following among two best articles: i) The article published in 1965 together with my Master in a special issue of “Czasopismo Techniczne”, dedicated to the 600-years Jubilee of the Jagiellonian University and the extended summary published in English under the title “Finite deflections of elastic-plastic beams, the stretchability of their axes taken into account”, Bull. Acad. Polon. Sci., Ser. sci. techn., Vol. 11, 1963; ii) my article published in Acta Mechanica, Vol. 3, 1967 on the application of multi-point equivalent cross-sections to the calculation of finite deflections of elastic-plastic beams with stretchable axis. In the latter, I implemented an approach developed in the doctoral dissertation of “Number 1”, i.e. Janusz Orkisz.
My return to the method of generalized power series developed by the Master is another interesting case. Already in the academic year 1960/61, professor Kozłowski asked me to conduct tutorials corresponding to his lectures on the theory of elasticity and plasticity that is precisely the tutorial by doctor Życzkowski, which had fascinated me five years before! Obviously, my classes were also based on the course book by W. Krzyś and M. Życzkowski that was soon published in Polish as a textbook Elasticity and Plasticity: Examples and Applications, PWN, Warsaw, 1962. It should be pointed out that this textbook is used until now as one of the best set of examples for classes on the theory of elasticity and plasticity strength of materials. One of analysed problems consisted in calculating the principle values of tensors of stresses and strains, which involved the need to solve a cubic equation. My observation from the “period of putting things in order”: but the Cardan’s formula for three real numbers solution can be extended into generalized series! This observation aroused the Professor’s interest. All the more so, because a gigantic (400 pages) doctoral dissertation was defended by Henryk Górecki in 1962 at the CUT Faculty of Civil Engineering. It was devoted to “practical methods of solving algebraic equations of higher degrees and their practical applications in the theory of structures”.
As a result, two papers were written and published in cooperation with the Professor. In this manner, I became a co-author of an article in a mathematical journal – namely written in Polish “Approximation formulas for the real roots of a cubic equations”, Applicationes Mathematicae, Vol. 8, 1966. The second article, namely “Some applications in mechanics of approximate formulae for real roots of cubic equation” was published in PAS Bulletin, Ser. sci. tech., Vol. 14, 1966. It presented an application of approximate formulae to solutions of problems taken, among others, from the Krzyś and Życzkowski’s textbook.
From among 11 original articles created in the first period of my encounters with Master Życzkowski, not less than 7 were quoted in his monograph Combined Loads in the Theory of Plasticity (in Polish), PWN, Warsaw, 1972. Additionally, two quotes were related to a new stage of my scientific career, namely the preparation of my post-doctoral dissertation. That was most probably quite a lot, for the results inspired by one doctoral dissertation. It is worth noticing that “Numbers 1 and 2” on the list of Życzkowski’s doctoral students had comparable achievements (1. J. Orkisz 8 quotes, 2. M. Wnuk 6 quotes).
6. Instead of an ending
I considered the article accepted in 1965 for printing in Acta Mechanica to be the end of the “period of putting things in order”, related primarily with the thematic domain inspired by the doctoral dissertation. According to the Professor’s language used in his monograph, these works concerned “uniaxial stress state at a point level”.
In the years 1966-67, I wrote three more texts – quoted in Życzkowski’s monograph – on the analysis of finite deflections of arches and circularly-symmetric, elastic-plastic plates and shells. It was quite an obvious extrapolation of the themes tackled in my post-doctoral dissertation. In the ‘70s, these works were also used by my first doctoral students, namely Czesław Cichoń and Marysia Radwańska – in a sense grandchildren of Master Życzkowski.
But I would like to reach out even further. Later on, the work of Professor Życzkowski’s life was published in English under the same title as the monograph written in Polish, i.e. Combined Loadings in the Theory of Plasticity, PWN – Polish Scientific Publishers, Warsaw, 1981. The considerably extended monograph is a testimony of the Master’s incredible work and knowledge in the domain of the theory of plasticity. Suffice it to say that its bibliography covers over three thousand titles that are not only quoted, but many of them are discussed or used in various, creative expansions and generalizations.
The latest monograph accompanied me during my stay at the TU Delft in Holland and it was the base of my lectures for students of the doctoral course. I took over the Master’s models, classifications and descriptions related to the hierarchically ordered levels of analysis.
Let us, however, get back to the main theme – my encounters with Master Życzkowski. At the beginning of 1966, the Master concluded that my first steps towards the post-doctoral thesis probably seemed right and that I should defend it within three years. It was a comment he would make, compliant with his model CV of a young researcher. Deep in my mind, I disagreed with these suggestions. Not only because such task seemed to be beyond my reach. There was another obstacle, as I got more interested in computer-aided methods of calculation (it is worth adding here that in the ‘90s, the Professor materialized the idea in the form of an inter-faculty specialization called “Computational Mechanics”). Then, out of the blue, during Professor Życzkowski’s seminar in 1966, there appeared professor Antoni Sawczuk, whom I had already met in 1962 at the famous training course in Jabłonna (see above in Section 3). After this visit, Master Życzkowski concluded that I should get in touch with professor Sawczuk with reference to the post-doctoral dissertation still in preparation. Thus, I was handed over into the hands of another Master, Professor Sawczuk. I described this meeting in my memories quoted at the beginning of Section 1.
However, and that was simply wonderful, although we apparently went separate ways, my encounters with Professor Życzkowski continued (see my memories). One of the reasons for this might be that both Masters, Życzkowski and Sawczuk, were made of the same mould, which I called in the Introductory Remarks above “the Ethos of Service to Science, to the Truth and to People”. And I must add that these were the attributes of their attitudes that were growing in importance for me.
Prof. Zenon Waszczyszyn
Cracow, November, 2009